Archived from the original on We also identify areas of research where additional work is needed to advance our understanding of the interactions between sex-differential biology and risk factors for ASD. Sexual satisfaction[ edit ] A study conducted by Byers and Nichols , explored the level of sexual satisfaction of high functioning autistic individuals. Overall, prevalence studies demonstrate that ASD is consistently over-represented in males as compared to females. Prevalence surveys conducted since have reported a range of male biases from 1. The researchers analyzed DNA samples of nearly families affected by autism and nearly 16, individuals with a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Several biological factors could explain this relationship between IQ and the sex ratio, but it should also be recognized that this could also, at least partially, reflect ascertainment bias.
Intelligence level affects this sex ratio: Since the diagnostic criteria for autism is developed based on research and considering that females are underrepresented in most clinical samples, the diagnostic criteria itself is biased. A review of the literature. Specifically, fetal testosterone is involved in many aspects of development and may interact with neurotransmitter, neuropeptide, or immune pathways to contribute to male vulnerability. Summary[ edit ] Differences in presentation of autistic traits are widely supported within the autistic community, and gaining support in the professional field. Hans Asperger was one of the first people to study autism, yet all of his four students were male. Finally, the possibilities of female underdiagnosis and a multi-hit hypothesis are discussed. Other mechanisms discussed are sex chromosome and sex hormone involvement. Generate a file for use with external citation management software. ASD prevalence in males and females From the first published descriptions of autism, it has been a male-typical disorder: Gender bias in autism diagnosis. In recent years, increased priority has been placed on the inclusion and study of autistic females, while geneticists have made considerable headway in identifying novel genetic risk variants for ASD, putting us now in a position to assess relationships between genetic risk factors, hormones, and observed patterns of sex-differential vulnerability to ASDs. Here, we review current findings and theories that contribute to male preponderance of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on autism. Archived from the original on This review highlights current theories of male bias in developmental disorders. Girls without diagnoses showed increased communication difficulties, but reduced social impairments as compared to non-diagnosed boys. This suggests that among those who meet diagnostic criteria, females are not more severely affected. Setting the scene for future research. There have not been many formal studies on this to date, however members of the community speculate that autistic individuals generally have different ideals, perceptions, and desires than neurotypicals, or simply do not comprehend or agree with society's expectation, making them more apt to diverge from the norm. Nevertheless, whether the male-skewed prevalence of ASD is due to biased diagnosis of sex-differential presentations of the disease or to true sex differences in prevalence or both , sex-specific biology is likely to play a role. Social Work in Mental Health, 14 4 , Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, — They also may have higher social motivation and a greater capacity for traditional friendships than males with autism Bargiela et al. Toward the pursuit of a more complete understanding of the biological basis for sex-differential risk, this review explores the current status of epidemiological, genetic, and neuroendocrinological work addressing ASD prevalence and liability in males and females. However, a new study of more than dizygotic twin pairs from population-based cohorts provides the most conclusive demonstration of female-protective factors to date, showing that siblings of autistic females exhibit significantly greater autistic impairments than siblings of autistic males Angelica Ronald, December 13,
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Many Women With Autism Are Going Undiagnosed
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