Our study of incidence trends also failed to show a statistically significant decline in ADCs during the early years — of the study period. This effect was likely due to increased risk of human herpesvirus-8 infection and KS among men who have sex with men, a pattern observed in previous studies from the U. Finally, rates of laryngeal cancer and lung cancer were also increased in the INI cohort, though not quite meeting statistical significance, and were likely related to the high tobacco use reported in the cohort. The now twenty-one countries where lesbians and gay men can legally marry include recent or longstanding democracies, republics and parliamentary monarchies, and unitary and federal states. Developing thinking in this area, geographers and other social scientists have illustrated the centrality of place, space and other spatial relationships in reconstituting sexual practices, representations, desires, as well as sexed bodies and lives. At both sites where active cervical cancer screening programs are present, rates of cervical cancer were low and risk was not above expected for the respective general populations. Both single-site cohorts, these clinics provide comprehensive HIV-specialty and primary care to HIV-infected patients. Smoking cessation programs for harm reduction due to tobacco-related cancers is needed in both countries as the HIV-infected populations continue to age. Lastly, due to the small number of events in both cohorts, cancers were assessed in the Cox models as ADCs and NADCs, rather than as individual cancer types.
In this comparative study of Brazilian and U. This may have been due to the smaller amount of person-time contributed during that time or delayed uptake of ART. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the cohorts were compared using Chi square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. These screening programs aim to reduce the excess anal cancer observed at both locations. In , INI began screening for anal dysplasia; however, only two of the seven cases of anal cancer in this study were diagnosed that year. This book reviews the current state of the field and offers new insights from authors located on five continents. The analytical framework used for exploring these factors in this book is neo-institutionalism. This diversity, in a globalized context where the idea of same-sex marriage has become integral to claims for LGBTI equality and indeed LGBTI human rights, gives rise to the following question: Smoking cessation programs for harm reduction due to tobacco-related cancers is needed in both countries as the HIV-infected populations continue to age. To compare rates of individual cancer types with those of the respective general populations, standardized incidence ratios SIRs were calculated by dividing the observed by the expected number of cases [ 36 ]. Global Perspectives on Same-Sex Marriage: Both single-site cohorts, these clinics provide comprehensive HIV-specialty and primary care to HIV-infected patients. Lastly, due to the small number of events in both cohorts, cancers were assessed in the Cox models as ADCs and NADCs, rather than as individual cancer types. The increasing proportion of non-infectious morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected populations has been observed in both the US and Brazil [ 1 , 15 — 20 , 26 ]. In doing so, the book seeks to draw on and influence core debates in this field, as well as disrupt the Anglo-American hegemony in studies of sexualities, sexes and geographies. Trends in cancer incidence were examined by Poisson regression. Data for this study were abstracted and validated from medical records at each site. Unlike KS and NHL, risk of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women has been most consistently reduced — and normalized to that of the general population — with cervical dysplasia screening and treatment programs rather than access to ART [ 24 , 25 ]. Patient follow-up time was censored at death, December 31, , or at the last clinic visit when death occurred more than one year after the last clinic visit or if the last clinic visit was more than one year before the end of the study period December 31, Additionally, risk of specific types of cancer and predictors of cancer were similar between the two cohorts. Lastly, all analyses were repeated using different windows of prevalent diagnoses in the sensitivity analyses presented in Additional file 3: However, whether cancer diagnoses made after day zero, ten, or 30 following clinic entry were included, results for the analyses were similar. Finally, rates of laryngeal cancer and lung cancer were also increased in the INI cohort, though not quite meeting statistical significance, and were likely related to the high tobacco use reported in the cohort. Further study of human herpesvirus-8 epidemiology among HIV-infected individuals in Brazil is needed to explore this relationship. We aimed to describe incidence of cancers at both sites and sought to avoid misclassification of prevalent cases by excluding diagnoses occurring the first ten days of clinic follow-up.
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